In solid-state lasers, light is usually used as a pump source, and the crystal or glass that can generate laser light is called a laser gain medium. The laser functioning material consists of 2 parts: matrix as well as triggered ions. Matrix material provides a suitable presence and workplace for activated ions and triggered ions complete the laser generation process. The frequently used triggering ions are generally transitioning steel ions, such as chromium, ruby, and nickel plasma, and also rare earth metal ions, such as neodymium ions. A mirror coated with a dielectric film is used as a resonator lens, among which is an all-mirror, as well as one, is a semi-mirror. Numerous wavelengths of laser will certainly be given off when using different activation ions, different substratum materials, and different wavelengths of light excitation.
The ruby laser outcome laser wavelength is 694.3 nm, and the photoelectric conversion price is low, only 0.1%. Nevertheless, its lengthy fluorescence life contributes to power storage and can outcome high pulse top power. The laser produced by a ruby pole with a pen lead’s thickness as well as the finger’s size can conveniently create as well as punch via the iron sheet. Before the lot more reliable YAG laser development, ruby lasers were widely used for laser cutting and also boring. Additionally, the 694nm light is quickly taken in by melanin, so ruby laser is also made used to treat pigmentary sores (skin spots).
Titanium sapphire laser
Because of its crystal properties, ti sapphire laser has a wide tunable array (tunable wavelength variety). It can outcome light of 660nm-1200nm wavelength as required. Paired with the maturity of frequency-increasing modern technology (which can increase the frequency of light, i.e. halve the wavelength), the Ti: Sapphire wavelength range can be extended to 330nm-600nm. Titanium sapphire laser has actually been utilized in femtosecond splitting, nonlinear optical research, white light generation, terahertz wave generation, etc, as well as has likewise been applied in medical elegance.
YAG is short for Yttrium aluminum garnet, which is the existing laser crystal matrix with the most exceptional extensive qualities. After including neodymium (Nd), it can output 1064nm light, as well as the maximum continual output power, can get to 1000w.
Nd: YAG laser
Early use of inert gas strobe as a laser pump source, but the strobe pump mode, large spooky variety, and also laser gain medium absorption spectrum overlap is poor, as well as the heat tons is huge, causing a low photoelectric conversion rate. So currently, making use of the LD (laser diode) pump can accomplish high efficiency, high power, and long life of the laser. Nd: YAG laser can deal with hemangioma as well as hinder tumour growth. Nonetheless, the thermal damage of the cells caused by this laser is non-selective. While coagulating the blood vessels in the tumor, the excess power will certainly likewise harm the bordering regular cells, which is simply to leave marks after surgical treatment. As a result, Nd: YAG laser is more typically made use of in surgical procedure, gynecology, as well as ENT, yet much less in dermatology.
Yb: YAG laser
Ytterbium (Yb) mixed in YAG, can result from 1030nm light. Yb: YAG pump wavelength of 941 nm as well as outcome wavelength extremely close to pump quantum effectiveness can achieve 91.4%, with the heat produced by the pump subdued to 10% or less (a lot of the energy input into the output of laser power, a couple of become hot, means that the conversion efficiency is extremely high), is an Nd: YAG 25% ~ 30%. Yb: YAG has actually become one of the most eye-catching solid-state laser media. LD pumped high power Yb: YAG solid-state laser has actually ended up being a brand-new research hotspot as well as is a major direction for establishing reliable and also high-power solid-state laser.
In addition to the above two kinds, YAG can be incorporated right into holmium (Ho), Erbium (Er), etc. Ho: YAG can generate 2097nm and also 2091nm lasers that are risk-free for human eyes as well as are mainly appropriate for optical interaction, radar and medical applications. Er: YAG results 2.9 μm light. The human body has a high absorption price of this wavelength, which has terrific application possibilities in laser surgical procedures and also vascular surgical treatment.